MPV is the acronym of Multi-Purpose Vehicle. In different regions, MPV has different names; for example, minivan, people carrier, multi-utility vehicle, etc. While in different regions, the same calling "MPV" may refers to different kinds of motor vehicles. However, generally speaking multi-purpose vehicles integrated the functions of sedans, station wagons and small trucks.
And MPVs (minivans) are usually designed for max. interior space. All seats in MPVs are adjustable and foldable: for example, the backrest of middle-row seats can be turned down to become a table; and the front-row seats can rotate in 180° angel.
Recently years, MPV were designed smaller and smaller; thus there occurred S-MPV, which means small MPVs. The vehicle length of S-MPVs usually ranges from 4.2m to 4.3m and the seat number ranges from 5 to 7.
A pickup / truck, pick-up truck or pickup is usually designed with an open-top rear cargo and a vehicle head which is similar to a passenger car. And the rear cargo area (bed) of pickup / trucks is usually available in different types, including short bed which is usually 6ft (1.8m) long, long bed which is usually 7ft (2.1m) long and so on.
As a result, a pickup / truck can be used for carrying both passenger and goods.
Single cab pickup / trucks and double can pickup / trucks are both available in the market; and double cab pickups are more popular.
CKD, the acronym of Completely Knocked Down or Completely Knock Down, is a complete kit needed to assemble a total vehicle. CKD is regularly applied in automotive industry as well as railway vehicle and bus manufacturers.
In other words, CKD vehicles means what we imported from foreign countries is "knocked down kits"; or we can say, what we imported are parts and accessories which are necessary for assembling a complete vehicle in local motor vehicle manufacturers.
SKD is the acronym of Semi-Knocked Down. SKD means that we imported from a foreign country are integral combustion engines, transmissions and batteries and then we use them to assemble complete vehicles in local vehicle manufacturing plants.
Or more broadly speaking, what we imported are semi-finished vehicles and then we just assemble and install them together to obtain total vehicles.
RV is the acronym of Recreational vehicle. In North America, RV is specifically used to refer to a vehicle which is equipped with housing-amenities like toilet and bedroom, etc. As a result, RVs are also called motorhomes sometimes.
But generally speaking, RV refers to motor vehicles used for entertainment and traveling, which contains wide range of vehicles like MPV and SUV, except sedans and racing cars.
The full name of SUV is Sport Utility Vehicle. SUV usually refers to a vehicle built on a light-truck chassis, but similar to a station wagon.
More often than not, SUVs are equipped with four-wheel drive for both on-road and off-road ability. Equipped with independent front suspension and dependent rear suspension as well as large ground clearance, SUVs not only have the same comfortability with sedans, but also have the similar off-road ability of off-road vehicles.
Designed with foldable and movable seats, some SUVs have the goods-carrying capacity of a pickup / truck and passenger-carrying space of minivans or MPVs.
An EV (electric vehicle) refers to an electric drive vehicle, including electric cars, electric trains, electric boats, electric motorcycles, and more.
Electric vehicles can obtain their power form wide range of sources, like fossil fuels, nuclear power, solar power and wind power, etc. Generally, generated electricity are stored onboard the vehicle using batteries or fuel cells, etc. And then batteries will offer electrical energy to electric motors to produce mechanical energy, and finally to propel a vehicle.
Nowadays we pay more and more attention to environment protection. As a result, in the future, most of our vehicles will be powered by renewable energy sources; hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles will surely become popular.
Hybrid vehicles are vehicles using two or more different power sources to propel vehicles.
More often than not, hybrid vehicles refer to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an electric propulsion system and internal combustion engine propulsion system together.
Hybrid vehicles are more environmentally-friendly and their power sources include rechargeable energy storage system, liquid nitrogen, LNG and solar and wind energy, etc.
Gas vehicles include LPG vehicles (liquefied petroleum gas vehicles) and CNG Vehicles (compressed natural gas vehicles).
LPGVs and CNGVs are more environmentally than our conventional vehicles. The CO emission of gas-powered vehicles is 90% lower than gasoline-powered vehicles, HC emission is 70% lower and NOx is 35% lower.
Kilometer Zero Vehicles
Kilometer zero, here, means neither the collective of international artists and writers, nor the name of a film, but a sales term in motor vehicle industry. A kilometer zero vehicle refers to a brand new vehicle which is not driven by anybody.
In order to guarantee the reading of mileage counter is zero, produced vehicles need to be transported by other large vehicles from manufacturing plants to each sales center.
ZEV (Zero-emission Vehicle)
A zero-emission vehicle refers to a vehicle emits no harmful pollutants, like particulates, carbon monoxide, ozone and lead, etc.
Zero-emission vehicles include solar energy powered vehicles, pure electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles, etc.
Classic cars or historic vehicles are usually used for describing old cars which was manufactured almost 20 years prior to the current year. However, the exact meaning is varying with region variation, for example, in Pennsylvania, US, it is legally defined as "a motor vehicle, but not a reproduction thereof, manufactured at least 15 years prior to the current year which has been maintained in or restored to a condition which is substantially in conformity with manufacturer specifications and appearance." While in UK, the HM Revenue & Customs defines a classic car "for company taxation purposes as being over 15 years old and having a value in excess of £15,000".
European Emission Standards
Tailpipe pollutants of vehicles include HC, NOx, CO, PM and so on. In order to protect our environment, many countries have defined some acceptable limits for the amount of harmful pollutants released by new vehicles. And among them, European emission standard is the mostly used reference standard.
Emission standards are subject to change
Since the Euro 2 stage, European emission standard offers different emission limits for different kinds of passenger cars, like diesel vehicles and gasoline vehicles.
An example for Explaining Euro II standard:
Vehicle type: passenger car; max. total mass ≤ 2.5t; passenger number (driver included) ≤ 6;
Date: After January 1, 2004
Euro II standard limitations on tailpipe emissions:
gasoline vehicles: CO≤2.2g/km, HC≤0.5g/km;
diesel vehicles: CO≤1.0g/km, HC≤0.7g/km, PM≤0.08g/km.